How do I attach a file to an e-mail message?

In pine:

1. Type C to compose your message.

2. Type the e-mail address you want to send to on the To: line.

3. Go to the line Attchmnt: and type Control-J

4. On the bottom of the screen it will say File to attach:

Either type in the filename or type Control-T to browse through your files. Use the arrow keys to scroll through the files and use the 'Enter'/'Return' key to select the file.

How do I determine the filetype of an unknown file?

Use file to determine the type of a file. For example, you receive the file unknown from another user and you want to know sort of file is unknown.

file unknown

unknown:    JPEG image data, JFIF standard

file returns that unknown is a Jpeg file, you can view jpeg files with xv

Note: file is found at /usr/local/bin/file

How do I make an archive of many files or a directory?

The Tape Archive program (tar) is used to create a single file from many files. Tar files are not smaller (compressed) than the original files, they are the union of all files archived. To compress tar files, use gzip or compress after creation.

Assume the current directory is called alpha and contains the files: abc; def; ghi; and jkl
To make a tar file of abc and def called mytar.tar you would type the following: